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Infertility

 

Infertility is a relatively common problem that affects between two and four million Indian couples or approximately 10 to 15% of the reproductive age range population. More couples now seek infertility evalua­tions, which may reflect the increased availability of infertility-related services and an increased media focus on medical advances in reproductive technology. The definition of infertility is one year of unprotected coitus without conception. Presently, the mean age of a woman who first gives birth is now three years older than that of a woman born 20 years ago. Postponement of pregnancy after marriage is the most significant change that has led to a decline of fertility world over. Thus, couples are seeking to have children at later ages in life, ages at which it is the most difficult to achieve a pregnancy.

Scope of infertility
Scope of infertility

Infertility causes
Infertility causes

  • Age-related decline in fertility contributes to the scope of infertility
  • Each ovulatory cycle in a normal couple without a fertility problem results in a 20 to 25% chance of conception. In couples with regular, unprotected intercourse, 57% conceive in three months, 72% in six months, 85% in one year, and 93% in two years
  • Overall 15% of all couples have infertility
  • 40% male factor
  • 40% female factor
  • 20% unexplained
  • Natural fecundity is 20% each cycle, 50% at 3 months and 85% at 12 months

Causes of infertility* *Not
Causes of infertility* *Not

applicable to all populations

  1. Overall 90% of women fail to conceive beyond 40 years of age
  2. Males show decreased fertility potential with age
  3. Frequency of intercourse affects fertility
  4. Occupational hazards influence fertility potential
  5. Previous contraception may also influence fertility.

Factors influencing reproductive health
Factors influencing reproductive health

 
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